Aristotle concludes by tackling the question of whether the epic or tragic form is 'higher.' Most critics of his time argued that tragedy was for an inferior audience that required the gesture of performers, while epic poetry was for a 'cultivated audience' which could filter a narrative form through their own imaginations. In reply, Aristotle notes that epic recitation can be marred by overdone gesticulation in the same way as a tragedy; moreover, tragedy, like poetry, can produce its effect without action - its power is in the mere reading. Aristotle argues that tragedy is, in fact, superior to epic, because it has all the epic elements as well as spectacle and music to provide an indulgent pleasure for the audience. Tragedy, then, despite the arguments of other critics, is the higher art for Aristotle.
Burkett, Andrew. "Wordsworthian Chance." Writes Burkett, "First-generation Romantic poets generally hold a deeply rooted faith in the notion of the limitless nature of possibility, and in reaction to Enlightenment determinism, several of these poets strive for an understanding and representation of nature that is divorced from Enlightenment notions of causality. This essay specifically explores William Wordsworth's poetic denunciation of such deterministic accounts of causality through an investigation of [ The Prelude ]." Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net 54 (2009).
The New York Times, 19 Feb 2016: " Umberto Eco, 84, Best-Selling Academic Who Navigated Two Worlds, Dies "
Financial Times, 20 Feb 2016: " Umberto Eco, academic, novelist and journalist, 1932-2016 "
The Guardian, 20 Feb 2016: " Umberto Eco, Italian novelist and intellectual, dies aged 84 "
BBC News, 20 Feb 2016: " Italian writer Umberto Eco dies at 84 "
Aljazeera, 21 Feb 2016: " Umberto Eco is dead: Long live Umberto Eco "
The Telegraph, 21 Feb 2016: " Umberto Eco's books blazed a trail for Harry Potter and Twilight "