Divisionism, along with the Neo-Impressionism movement as a whole, found its beginnings in Georges Seurat's masterpiece, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte . Seurat was classically trained in the École des Beaux-Arts, and, as such, his initial works reflected the Barbizon style. Studying under Pierre Puvis de Chavannes , Seurat intensely pursued interests in line and color, color theory, and optical effects, all of which formed the basis of Divisionism. In 1883, Seurat and some of his colleagues began exploring ways to express as much light as possible on the canvas.  By 1884, with the exhibition of his first major work, Bathing at Asnières , as well as croquetons of the island of La Grande Jatte, Seurat’s style began taking form with an awareness of Impressionism, but it was not until he finished La Grande Jatte in 1886 that he established his theory of chromo-luminarism. Although this painting was originally rejected by the official salon it attracted the Salon des Indépendants where Paul Signac was engaged. 
The often misunderstood type of art known as abstraction aims to take subjects from reality but present them in way that is different from the way they are viewed in our reality. This may take the form of emphasizing lines , shapes , or colors that transform the subject. Abstract art includes the subcategories of Minimalism, Cubism, and Precisionism. Abstraction can also happen when the artist decides to view the subjects in a non- traditional manner. Abstraction is relatively new to the art world, having it's earliest roots in the deviations from reality taken by the Impressionists. It began to gain popularity in various forms around the world at the end of the 19th century. Artists began to take a more intellectual approach to painting . This new way of approaching art is evidenced in the Magritte painting entitled, "The Treachery of Images", 1928-1929. Written in French under a representational painting of a pipe, is the phrase, "This is not a pipe." The point is that the painting is indeed not a pipe, but rather a painting of a pipe. Artists of this time where now approaching paintings as paintings, allowing for a new form of intellectual expression. Many people have difficultly in understanding the differences between abstract art and non-objective art. The clear difference lies in the subject matter chosen. If the artist begins with a subject from reality, the artwork is considered to be abstract. If the artist is creating with no reference to reality, then the work is considered to be non-objective.
Picabia went on to show L’Œil at the Salon d’Automne in 1921, where it must have been seen as a display of Dada impudence. Picabia, after all, did not make it. He was more like the work’s maître d’. The word cacodylic , in addition, comes from the Greek for “foul-smelling,” and the very idea of a foul-smelling eye—Picabia has painted a large eye toward the bottom, which anchors the many signatures—has a Dada ring to it. Yet Picabia was right to call it “beautiful.” It is a work of formal strength and delicacy.